Egypt 2017

AFRICAN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL LEARNING (ISSN 1447-9540)

Egypt 2017

Volume 6, No. 9, February 2017

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

Munacinga C.H. Simatele

Department of Economics, Gothenburg School of Economics and Commercial Law,

 

D.C Rweyemamu

Economic and social Research Foundation (ESRF)

 

  1. Mwakalobo

Economic and social Research Foundation (ESRF)

 

  1. Kajuna

Economic and social Research Foundation (ESRF)

 

Samuel O. Oyieke

University of Eastern Africa, Baraton.

 

Michael Fezi Ogbolosingha

Department of Theatre and Film Studies. University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 

Emmanuel Emasealue

Department of Theatre and Film Studies. University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 

Femi Shaka

Department of Theatre and Film Studies. University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 

Olatayo  Solomon Olanrewaju

Curriculum & Instructional Technology Department,

University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

 

Michael Olubunmi Odewumi

Department of Educational Technology, University of Ilorin, Nigeria

 

Onyeaso A.O

Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Faculty of Education,

University of Port Harcourt.

  

Joyce Njoku  

Department of educational psychology, guidance and counselling, Faculty of Education University of Port Harcourt. Port Harcourt, Rivers State

 

Ossai Maryam Ogbugwa

Department of educational psychology, guidance and counselling, Faculty of Education University of Port Harcourt. Port Harcourt, Rivers State

 

MGbemisola Omowumi Babatunde

Counselling Psychologist and Lecturer, Department of Educational Evaluation

And Counselling Psychology, Faculty of Education, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

 

Martins Noyosase Igbineweka

Counselling Psychologist and Lecturer, Department of Educational Evaluation And Counselling Psychology, Faculty of Education, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.

 

Osazeme Paul Ogboghodo

Counselling Psychologist and Staff School of Post-graduate Studies,

University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.

 

Ochuba O. Onyinyechi

Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology

University of Port Harcourt

 

Dr. A.V. Ogunleye

Department of Human Kinetic and Health Education

University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 

Prof (Mrs) C. N. Olele  

Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology

Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 

Agbarakwe, Haret Akudo (Mrs.)

Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology

Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 

Okoronkwo Ikechukwu Francis

Department of Fine Arts and Design University of Port Harcourt.

  

Saliu, A. Danladi

Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology, Faculty of Education University of Port-Harcourt.

 

Uchegbue, Angela Ijeoma

Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology, Faculty of Education University of Port-Harcourt.

 

Obioma-Onyenma olilu .O.

Department of Educational Psychology Guidance and Counselling University of Port Harcourt

 

Bereket Kebede

University of Bath and Department of Economics Addis Ababa University

 

Jane Kabubo-Mariara

Department Of Economics, University Of Nairobi p.o box 30197 Nairobi

 

Bernadette Dia Kamgnia

University of Yaounde 11 P.O.Box 13936 Yaounde, Cameroon E-Mail: dkamgnia@yahoo.com

 

OmononA, B.T.

Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

 

Udoh, E.J.

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Uyo, Uyo.

 

Awoyemi Taiwo Timothy (Ph.D)

Department of Agricultural Economics University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

 

Benneth Prince OBI

Department of Economics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

 

Samuel Fambon

Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Economic and Management University of

Yaounde II, P. O. Box 1365 Yaounde-Cameroon. E-mail: sfambon@yahoo.fr

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Munacinga C. H. Simatele

The Impact of Structural Adjustment on Food Production In Zambia

1
D. C. Rweyemamu, B. Mwakalobo and J. Kajuna         

 Assessing transaction cost in micro and small enterprises (MSE’s) Credit Schemes: A case study of schemes in Arusha and Mwanza districts

10
Samuel O. Oyieke

Public expenditure and economic growth in Kenya

27
Michael Fezi Ogbolosingha, Emmanuel Emasealue & Femi Shaka

Leadership and the Image of the Niger Delta Youth in Eni Umuko’s: The Scent of Crude Oil and Ahmed Yerima’s Hard Ground

42
Olatayo Solomon Olanrewaju & Michael Olubunmi Odewumi     

Perception of ladoke akintola university of technology ogbomoso postgraduate students on the integration of cell phone for learning

64
Onyeaso A.O (Ph.D)  &  Ogunleye A.V (Ph.D)

Comparative effects of training on cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowledge, skills and attitude of Nigerian secondary school students

75
Martins Noyosase Igbineweka PhD & Gbemisola Omowumi Babatunde

Efficacy of systematic desensitization in reducing test anxiety amongst senior secondary school students in Oredo local government area, Edo state

85
Dr. (Mrs) Joyce Njoku & Ossai Maryam Ogbugwa    

Factors influencing recidivism among prison inmates in Rivers State: implication for counselling

97
Martins, Noyosase Igbineweka PhD and Gbemisola Omowumi Babatunde      

Gender and school type difference on students’ perception of their deviant behaviour in selected secondary schools in Benin Metropolis.

107
Martins Noyosase Igbineweka & Osazeme Paul Ogboghodo

Influence of work and home pressures as correlates of stress, amongst female lecturers in Nigerian universities

115
Dr. Ochuba O. Onyinyechi & DR. A.V. Ogunleye

Language and sports activities as a veritable tool for counselling to Enhance peace sustainability in Abuja local government area of Rivers State

128
Prof (Mrs) C. N. Olele & Agbarakwe, Haret Akudo (Mrs.)

Quality assurance in clinical skill training laboratory: implication

For educational technology

139
Okoronkwo Ikechukwu Francis 

Colour Symbolism and Religious Iconography in Information Age.

148
Saliu, A. Danladi & Uchegbue, Angela Ijeoma 

Extracting the roles of information and communication technology ICT in teacher education and innovation in the 21st century

161
(Mrs.) Joyce Njoku & Obioma-Onyenma Olilu O.

Neuroticism, Extraversion and openness as correlates of Anorexia Nervosa among Adolescent students in University of Port Harcourt. Rivers State, Nigeria

172
Bereket Kebede

Decomposition of household expenditure and child welfare in rural Ethiopia

186
Okoronkwo Ikechukwu Francis

Locating ‘identi-fixation’ from linguistic profiling to visual art context:

reflections on my residency experience (Vermont studio centre)

210
Jane Kabubo-Mariara

Determinants of Rural Poverty in Kenya: The role of Environmental Conservation

222
Bernadette Dia Kamgnia

Benefits and Demand for Publicly Provided Health Services in Cameroon

232
Omonona, B.T. & Udoh, E.J.

Rural Poverty and its Determinants among Farming Households in Kogi State, Nigeria

249
Awoyemi Taiwo Timothy (Ph.D)

Rural Non-Farm Incomes and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria

260
Benneth Prince OBI 

Fiscal Policy and Income Distribution: Some Policy Options for Nigeria.

288
Samuel Fambon

Poverty and Malnutrition in Cameroon

318
Cecilia O. Okoro, PhD and Douglas O. Nwaokugha, PhD                                       

Creating awareness on environmental justice in Etche Ethnic nationality through Education

337
Douglas O. Nwaokugha, Ph.D and Cecilia O. Okoro, PhD

Teaching Practice in Teacher Education programmes: The Nigerian Experience

351
Rachael Ozuri

Sex and Age as Predictors to Examination Malpractices Among Secondary School Students in Delta Central Senatorial District of Delta State, Nigeria

376
Peter Alawa (Ph.D)

A Philosophical Analysis of Albert Camus’ Concept of The Stranger and The Problem of Insurgency in Contemporary Nigeria

383
Jacob Olusola ODELOLA Ph.D. & Nwankaego Eunice OMEBOH (M.Ed)

Enhancing Attitude Towards E-Waste Management Through Environmental Health Education Among Electronic Technicians in Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria

395

MUNACINGA C.H. SIMATELE

Abstract

In the paper, we estimate a system of three outputs and one input demand simultaneously. We find that Maize, sorghum and Millet are all responsive to both own and cross price elasticities. Simulation exercises indicate that the removal of exchange rate controls and price subsidies led to increase in grain production.

Download “Dowload PDF” THE IMPACT OF STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT ON FOOD.pdf – Downloaded 10 times – 147 KB

D.C Rweyemamu, B. Mwakalobo and J. Kajuna

Abstract

The majority of Micro and small Enterprises (MSEs) cannot afford to adequately finance their production activities. In Tanzania, a number of local and externally funded agencies have been involved in financing MSEs activities through projects. However, most of these credit schemes have been characterized by inefficient financial intermediation such that they often impose high transaction costs on either lenders or borrowers or both. This study attempts to investigate transaction costs in Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) credit schemes in Mwanza and Arusha districts. Specifically the study aims at; (i) estimate the lender-borrower loan transaction costs in MSEs lending programmes, (ii) assessing how transaction costs vary across different types of lenders and in different areas, (iii) identifying factors that affect the transaction costs incurred by borrowers, and (iv) determining the consequences of the transaction costs on credit demand. Primary data will be obtained using a structured questionnaire administered to 120 Micro and Small Enterprise borrowers randomly selected from the two districts together. A checklist will also be used to interview the lending projects in the study areas. Much of the analysis will be based on descriptive statistics to summarise survey results. However, multiple regression analyses will be carried out to identify the determinants of borrowing transaction costs, together with the consequent effects of the costs on loan demand. This study will recommend measures to be taken at both the organisational and national policy level towards the development of a viable and sustainable financial market for MSEs.

Download “PDF” ASSESSING TRANSACTION COST IN MICRO AND SMALL ENTERPRISES (MSEs) CREDIT SCHEMES A CASE STUDY OF SCHEMES IN ARUSHA AND MWANZA DISTRICTS.pdf – Downloaded 17 times – 205 KB

SAMUEL O. OYIEKE

Abstract

This study focuses on the link between the level, the composition, and the financing of public expenditure and Economic Growth. In this analysis, the study will also look at the relationship between public and private expenditure so as to identify those expenditure categories which crowds in/out private investment. The study proposes to use annual data as published in official government publications such as statistical abstract, IMF and World Bank publications, expenditure reviews, and the Analytical Data Compendium of KPPRA. These will be analysed to show how Expenditure has affected Growth in the period 1963 to 2002. It is the argument in this paper that there has been mixed impact due to time and policy shifts occasioned by different external shocks and policy influences. The study in order to capture these effects proposes to a dynamic model and estimates the relevant equations using the OLS method.

Download “PDF” PUBLIC EXPENDITURE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN KENYA 1963 – 2002..pdf – Downloaded 16 times – 209 KB

Michael Fezi Ogbolosingha, Emmanuel Emasealue & Femi Shaka

Abstract

The scramble for oil wealth in the Niger Delta has led to such antisocial behaviour as kidnapping, pipeline vandalization, illegal oil bunkering, robbery and assassination. It is for this reason that this study which is literary in methodology and qualitative in approach, and a study which acknowledges that drama is a veritable tool for social change, embarks on the examination of leadership and the image of the Niger Delta youth in Eni Umuko’s The Scent of Crude Oil and Ahmed Yerima’s Hard Ground. The findings of this study are the collapse of youth leadership as a result of the failure of the nuclear family unit, abuse of the democratic process and the bad influence of agents of government and the multinationals. The paper recommends proper coordination of the Niger Delta struggle by all stakeholders; a reorientation in the nuclear family unit; respect for the spirit of dialogue and the need for the youth to imbibe the ideals and philosophies of the founding fathers of the Niger Delta. The paper also recommends that the intellectual community should embark on advocacy and intervention so as to drastically reduce the spate of militancy and violence; create consciousness in the minds of the stakeholders; persuade the government to take up the responsibility of occasioning development in the region and draw international attention to the Niger Delta course.

Download “PDF” LEADERSHIP AND THE IMAGE OF THE NIGER DELTA YOUTH IN ENI UMUKO’S THE SCENT OF CRUDE OIL AND AHMED YERIMA’S HARD GROUND.pdf – Downloaded 15 times – 245 KB

Olatayo Solomon OLANREWAJU, PhD & Michael Olubunmi ODEWUMI, M. Ed

Abstract

This research investigated the perception of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Ogbomoso, postgraduate students on the integration of cell phone for learning in Nigeria. Three research questions were raised and three hypotheses postulated to guide the study. The study adopted descriptive type of survey research with population of 400 postgraduate students, using stratified random sampling. The sample size had 300 masters of 150 males and 150 females. The doctoral students of 100 out of which 52 were males and 48 females. The instrument used was questionnaire named Perception of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Ogbomoso Postgraduate Students’ Integration of Cell Phone for Learning (PLAUTOPSICPL). The instrument was validated by the experts and the reliability yielded value of 0.81 using Cronbach alpha which was quite suitable for the study. The analysis for the study was done using t-test and ANOVA at level 0.05 of significance. The findings revealed that cell phone was positive for learning; and that the postgraduate students should possess functional and standard cell phones to enhance their learning.

Download “PDF” PERCEPTION OF LADOKE AKINTOLA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY OGBOMOSO POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS ON THE INTEGRATION OF CELL PHONE FOR LEARNING.pdf – Downloaded 16 times – 157 KB

ONYEASO A.O (PhD) & OGUNLEYE A.V (PhD)

Abstract

This paper compared the pattern of the effects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training on the secondary school students’ CPR knowledge, skills and attitude among 322 purposively selected secondary school students in Rivers State Nigeria using a quasiexperimental study design. A validated questionnaire with reliability coefficient of 0.83 was used for data collection on knowledge and attitude towards CPR. While a modified American Heart Association (AHA) Guide form was used to assess the participants CPR skills before and after the training. Data analyzed were presented using t-test and ANOVA at 0.05 significant level. Pre-training knowledge mean was 1.27 while posttraining knowledge mean was 3.66. Mean CPR skills before training was 1.00 while post training mean skills was 7.92. Means for attitude before and after training were 3.15 and 3.51, respectively. The CPR training that the secondary school students received had consistent remarkably significant positive effects on their eventual CPR knowledge, skills and attitude from their pre-training status with the positive pattern on attitude from pretraining stage. CPR should be included in Nigeria’s school curriculum in line with best practices as recommended by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. Schools play an important role in providing students with basic emergency lifesaving skills as part of the school health education programme. This will also act as part of their preparation for response to medical emergencies both in school environment and at home.

Download “PDF” COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF TRAINING ON CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION KNOWLEDGE.pdf – Downloaded 15 times – 177 KB

Martins Noyosase IGBINEWEKA, PhD & Gbemisola Omowumi BABATUNDE

Abstract

This study investigated the Efficacy of Systematic Desensitization Therapy in reducing Test Anxiety among senior secondary school students in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo state. The sample size of 513 students from four senior secondary schools, two public and two private schools were involved in this study. They were found to be test anxious after a pre-test was conducted on them. Three research questions were raised with their corresponding hypotheses, the Test Anxiety Inventory was used to collect data, and the instrument had a reliability estimate of a Cronbach alpha value of 0.79, thus, confirming the reliability. The results showed that systematic desensitization was effective in reducing test anxiety, when the experimental and control groups were compared having an F-value of 307.91 and a p-value of 0.00. Testing at the alpha level of 0.05, the p-value is lesser than the alpha level (0.05). Also, male and female reacted equally to the treatment irrespective of gender, meaning, the treatment was not gender sensitive, with an F-value of 1.14 and a p-value of 0.29. Based on the findings of this study, it was however recommended that, the government and all agencies in charge of the school system should do everything within their power to reduce the test anxiety to its barest minimum. Improve the schools’ conditions and bridge communication gap between the school students and their teachers. Also, government and other related agencies should provide proper teaching and instructional materials that are ingredients for effective performance.

Download “PDF” EFFICACY OF SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION IN REDUCING TEST ANXIETY AMONGST SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN OREDO.pdf – Downloaded 14 times – 162 KB

JOYCE NJOKU (PH.D) & OSSAI MARYAM OGBUGWA

Abstract

The study investigated factors influencing recidivism (a criminal concept for repeating a negative behavior after being punished) among prison inmates in Rivers State. Two research questions and two corresponding hypotheses guided the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population of the study was 2,071 prison inmates in Rivers State. A sample size of 543 respondents was drawn from the population using cluster and stratified random sampling techniques. An instrument named “Prison Recidivists Scale” (PRS) was used for data collection. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions, while independent t-test at 0.05 level of probability was used to test all the null hypotheses. Results of the study indicated that; recidivism among prison inmates is significantly influenced by gender; marital status, recidivism was found more among prison inmates with first school leaving certificates and senior secondary certificates and those with higher certificates (above SSCE); rate of recidivism was higher among prison inmates from separated, broken or divorced marriages than those from intact homes, unemployment significantly influenced recidivism among prison inmates. Based on the major findings, five relevant recommendations were made among which were: that prison authorities should take urgent steps to incorporate the different socialization process for prison inmates into orientation programmes; government should extend its scholarship programme to ex-convicts; government should also ensure urgent posting of guidance counselors to all prisons in Nigeria to assist prisoners to be more rational and productive upon release.

Download “PDF” FACTORS INFLUENCING RECIDIVISM AMONG PRISON INMATES IN RIVERS STATE IMPLICATION FOR COUNSELING.pdf – Downloaded 16 times – 144 KB

Martins Noyosase IGBINEWEKA, PhD & Gbemisola Omowumi BABATUNDE

Abstract

The main objective of the study was to find out the perception of deviant behaviour by students regarding variables of gender and school type from selected secondary schools in Benin metropolis. The dependent variable was deviant behaviour, the independent variables include gender and school type with three levels of (single sex boys, single sex girls and mixed); with a public and a private mixed school, a public and a private single sex boys’ school; and a public single sex girls’ school senior secondary.The sampling within each stratum was by simple random method, forty eight (48) students each from the five stratified randomly picked schools, making a total of two hundred and forty secondary school adolescents formed the study sample. There were two research questions raised and were hypothesised.Perception of Deviant Behaviour Questionnaires (PDBQ) developed by the researchers was used to obtain data for the study. The results showed that there was no significant difference in Gender of the students based on their perception of deviant behaviours with a t-value of .958 and p-value of .339 testing at an alpha level of .05. This means that the p-value is greater than the alpha level. Also, there was no significant difference between students in mixed and single sex schools in their perception of deviant behaviours with F-value of .873 and a p-value of .419, testing at an alpha level of 0.5. Based on the findings of this study, it was however recommended that Guidance counsellors in schools should be equipped with qualified personnel that can help with its therapeutic techniques and instrument in providing adequate information that will help to remove or minimize the source of deviancy and to those who still exhibit deviant behaviour be appropriately and accordingly sanctioned.

Download “PDF” GENDER AND SCHOOL TYPE DIFFERENCEON STUDENTS’PERCEPTION OF THEIR DEVIANT BEHAVIOUR IN SELECTED SECONDARY.pdf – Downloaded 15 times – 148 KB

Martins Noyosase IGBINEWEKA, PhD & Osazeme Paul OGBOGHODO

Abstract

This study investigated Work and Home Pressures Correlates of Stress, on Female Lecturers in University of Benin. The main objective of the study was to find out the correlates of stress in lecturers’ lives taking the holistic approach to stress sources into consideration. There are a total 323 female academics staff in the University during the 2009/2010 academic year when the study was carried out. Out of this number, 45 were systematically selected across the 15 faculties of the university of Benin. Five research questions were raised with three hypothesised and the Work and Home Pressures Correlates of Stress Questionnaire was used to collect data, the instrument had a reliability estimate of 0.65. The results showed that female academics lecturers irrespective of their faculties and rank and specialties in the University of Benin with an F-value of .751 and a p-value of .528; Testing at an alpha level of .05. Also, work pressure significantly influence stress on female lecturers in University of Benin with a Pearson r value of .521 and a p-value of .000. Testing at an alpha level of .05 and finally, work pressure significantly influence stress on female lecturers in University of Benin with a Pearson r-value of .711 and a p-value of .000. Based on the findings of this study, It was however recommmeded that the government and all agencies in charge of the school system should do everything within their power to reduce the stressors existing in the schools by improving the physical conditions in the schools.

Download “PDF” INFLUENCE OF WORK AND HOME PRESSURES AS CORRELATES OF STRESS AMONGST FEMALE LECTURERS IN.pdf – Downloaded 16 times – 183 KB

OCHUBA O. ONYINYECHI (Ph.D) & DR. A.V. OGUNLEYE

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to find out the impact of Language and Sports as Counseling tool among boys and girls in Abua local government Area of Rivers State. The study examined the roles of language and sports to the development of boys and girls in peacekeeping fostering their physical, emotional health and building valuable social connections. A descriptive survey research design was used with a questionnaire that includes sports roles for peace and development organize questionnaire. We had a sample size of one thousand eight hundred (1,800) respondents for the study. A simple random sampling technique which involved two stages divided into non-probability and probability sampling technique on a population of male and female youths from the crisis area of Abua Local government Area of Rivers State. The results were subjected to descriptive statistics of percentage, mean and standard deviation. The results showed that there was a significant relationship between the variables of language and sports in terms of social control, cultural/ethical value, character building, occupational mobility, group dynamics and youth positive restiveness on peace and development. Based on the recommendations made, we are of the opinion that both State and Federal government should give priority to the provision of resources for the establishment of sports facilities and language centre at the community level to bridge and foster national peace and development within Abua.

Download “PDF” LANGUAGE AND SPORTS ACTIVITIES AS A VERITABLE TOOL FOR COUNSELLING TO ENHANCE PEACE SUSTAINABILITY IN ABUA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF RIVERS STATE.pdf – Downloaded 14 times – 154 KB

Prof (Mrs) C. N. Olele & Agbarakwe, Haret Akudo (Mrs.)

Abstract

The study investigated the establishment of a clinical skills laboratory targeted towards the elimination of error in medical diagnosis and promotion of quality service delivery in medical training content and practice. It adopted the descriptive survey research. The population of the study was two hundred and fifty-five medical doctors from three Departments in the Faculty of Clinical Science, University of Port Harcourt, out of which 120 were randomly sampled but only eighty-five (85) participated in the study. The instrument used was Quality Assurance in Clinical Skills Laboratory Questionnaire (QACSLQ) which was used to collect data from the sample size. The reliability of the instruments was established using the Cronbach alpha method of internal consistency. The reliability coefficient of the test items was .57, while its content validity was 69.82% with construct validity ranging from .30 and .73. Two research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. The Statistical tool employed in analysing the research questions was the simple percentage while chi-square was used to test the null hypothesis. The statistical analysis obtained from the hypothesis established that the use of clinical skills laboratory does not have any significant influence on quality assurance in medical education based on a short term study. It is therefore recommended that Medical training college should make optimal use of the clinical skills laboratory for the attainment of performance based outcome curriculum targeted at achieving quality service delivery in actual practice and competency based learning in skills acquisition.

Download “PDF” QUALITY ASSURANCE IN CLINICAL SKILL TRAINING LABORATORY IMPLICATION FOR EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY.pdf – Downloaded 16 times – 167 KB

OKORONKWO IKECHUKWU FRANCIS

Abstract

This paper focuses on shifting attitudes of symbolism and iconography experienced in religious expressions through its adaptations to ICT influences on contemporary societies. Some important issues concerning; Color, Mediatization, Religion, Symbolism and Iconography is explored as a way to gain insight into these recent changing paradigms of religion into admitting elements of popculture in its bid for relevance. Emphasis on color symbolism and emerging iconography was laid as a way to show how created images and its interpretations inform human expression of the dynamics of its societies. It is within the awareness of the conflictual positions of religion and technology as major causal factor of human existence that this paper engages the dynamic elements of signs, symbols, iconography, colors and their meaning within contemporary religious interpretation. The reason adduced in this paper points to proliferation of images, designs, and infiltration of other cultural items within the internet platforms. This study is important as it interrogates the apparent overthrow of religious structure by internet through the created images and interpretation of colors.

Download “PDF” QUALITY ASSURANCE IN CLINICAL SKILL TRAINING LABORATORY IMPLICATION FOR EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY.pdf – Downloaded 16 times – 167 KB

SALIU, A. DANLADI (Ph.D) & UCHEGBUE, ANGELA IJEOMA

Abstract

The teacher is one of the most important factors in the business of teaching and learning. Before the advent of information and communication technology, they have being known as the builders of knowledge. With Information and Communication Technology (ICT), the teachers and students can assess information, acquire new skills and methods of teaching and learning process. This means that for the teacher to remain relevant in this new technology era, ICT must be integrated in their teaching process. Therefore, this paper tries to discuss the integration of ICT facilities in teacher education, teachers characteristics for effective use of ICT in teaching and learning, factors that hinders the development of ICT in Nigeria and recommendations.

Download “PDF” EXTRACTING THE ROLES OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ICT IN TEACHER EDUCATION AND INNOVATION IN THE 21ST CENTURY.pdf – Downloaded 15 times – 159 KB

DR. (MRS.) JOYCE NJOKU & OBIOMA-ONYENMA OLILU .O.

Abstract

This study investigates neuroticism, extraversion and openness as correlates of anorexia nervosa among adolescents in the University of Port Harcourt, Choba. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide this study. while neuroticism, extraversion and openers as factors were the independent variables, while anorexia nervosa was the dependent variables. Empirical literature was also reviewed on the relationship between personality traits, sociological factors and anorexia nervosa behaviour among adolescents. The design for the study was ex-post factor. A purposive sampling technique was used to compose the sample for the study. The population consisted of first year students of the University of Port Harcourt between the ages of 16 to 20 years. The sample was 296 students who completed and returned the forms be used for analysis. Hypothesis one was tested with ANOVA associated with multiple regression, hypothesis two was tested with t-test associated with multiple regression, hypotheses 3 were analyzed and tested with independent t-test statistics. The results of the study showed significant difference between neuroticism, extraversion and openness to experience jointly influencing anorexia nervosa behaviour while neuroticism independently had a significant influence on students’ anorexia nervosa behaviour. Based on that, recommendation was made.

Download “PDF” NEUROTICISM EXTRAVERSION AND OPENNESS AS CORRELATES OF ANOREXIA NERVOSA AMONG ADOLESCENT STUDENTS IN UNIVERSITY OF PORT HARCOURT RIVERS STATE NIGERIA.pdf – Downloaded 15 times – 186 KB

Bereket Kebede

Abstract

This paper uses the method of Lazear and Michael (1988) to decompose household expenditure into expenditures on adults and children. As a contribution to the method some estimation procedures are modified and tests for estimated ratios are conducted. In contrast to the Lazear and Michael (1988) that used cross-sectional data, panel data are used here that help to control household level heterogeneity. ln addition, the correlation of the resulting estimated expenditures on children with a direct measure of child welfare is examined. The results indicate that the estimated expenditures on children are more strongly correlated to child welfare than total household expenditures. This underscores the importance of intra-household allocations on the one hand and gives credence to the estimated expenditures as well as the underlying assumptions on which the method is based. The method used in this paper requires data available from standard household and income/expenditure surveys. The availability of data from these surveys has substantially improved in developing countries over the last decade. An application of this relatively simple method on the collected data
can help the understanding of intra-household allocations in general and expenditures on children in particular in developing countries.

Download “PDF” DECOMPOSITION OF HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE AND CHILD WELFARE IN RURAL ETHIOPIA.pdf – Downloaded 17 times – 267 KB

Okoronkwo Ikechukwu Francis

Abstract

The notion of stereotyping as a social phenomenon had taken many forms; this paper engages the subject of aural stereotype as a theoretical framework through the practice based methodology of the visual artist as an extending form of knowledge production. The context is an art residency encounter at the Vermont studio centre where accent as an issue inspired a studio exploration on the subject of identity and fixations emanating from aural stereotypes. Through a proper understanding of the conditions of aural stereotype, the artist engages this subject through a transmutation of elements from the aural to the visual and provides new insights to the subject matter through mixed media and installation art as an extending form of knowledge production. The encounter provided further handle to understand self within a linguistic frame and engages a more expansive discourse of identity, self, other and its apprehensions. Finally, the study calls for further dynamic collaborations between linguistic scholars and the visual artists.

Download “PDF” LOCATING ‘IDENTI-FIXATION’ FROM LINGUISTIC PROFILING TO VISUAL ART CONTEXT REFLECTIONS ON MY RESIDENCY EXPERIENCE (VERMONT STUDIO CENTRE).pdf – Downloaded 16 times – 790 KB

JANE KABUBO-MARIARA

Abstract

Poverty and environmental degradation are closely interlinked. Some literature argue that environmental degradation leads to low productivity and poverty, while other literature argue that poverty leads to environmental degradation, which then leads to low productivity and poverty. However most studies concur that a complex set of variables govern the link between poverty and environmental degradation. Empirical literature on this link is scant This study proposes to fill in this literature gap by testing the hypothesis that environmental conservation leads to higher productivity and incomes and therefore increases expenditures, pulling households out of poverty. The study will also seek to explain the main incentives for environmental conservation and the main determinants of property right structures. Ordinary least square methods will be employed to explain the determinants of poverty while probits and instrumental variable pro bits will be used to explain environmental conservation and property rights. The study will be based on primary data collected by the researcher in 1999 and 2000. The results of the study are expected to give useful implications for policy intervention to encourage environmental conservation and to reduce poverty.

Download “PDF” DETERMINANTS OF RURAL POVERTY IN KENYA THE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION.pdf – Downloaded 14 times – 175 KB

Bernadette Dia KAMGNIA

Abstract

Over the years, efforts have been made to improve health care in Cameroon. Yet since the late eighties, under the structural adjustment programs, as public expenditures had to be contracted, more stringent conditions have been set out for non-wage expenditures, of which public spending on health services. Moreover, the government had to put in place a cost recovery system that entails the participants bearing some of the costs. What resulted to high costs that drive individuals away from “modern” health institutions. But, neither traditional medicine nor street vendors stand for the cheapest means for assuring health services. It therefore appeared necessary to analyze Cameroonians participation into public health services, in order to grasp the distributional effects of those services. Three specific objectives are specified: (i) determine the extent to which public spending on health care constitutes a targeted means for poverty reduction (ii) identify the determinants of participation in public health care; and (iii) propose alternative health care policies compatible with the government’s concern for poverty alleviation. While the distributional impacts are to be assessed in a benefit incidence analysis, the determinants of participation in public health services would be identified in evaluating a structured multinomial, logit model. Basically, spending on curative diseases is analyzed. It is hoped that the determinants, of participation in public health services would help design appropriate delivery mechanisms.

Download “PDF” BENEFITS AND DEMAND FOR PUBLICLY PROVIDED.pdf – Downloaded 15 times – 225 KB

OMONONA, B. T. & UDOH, E. J.

Abstract

This research proposes to study the determinants of rural poverty among farming households in Kogi State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study are to present the specific characteristics and expenditure pattern of farming households, assess the extent of and contributions to farming households’ poverty, estimate the determinants of poverty and derive policy implications for targeted poverty reduction among farming households in the study area. The data to be used obtained from 600 randomly selected farming households from 4 representative local government areas, located in each of the 4 administrative zones of the state. The methodology data analysis includes descriptive statistics such as mean, standard derivation, frequency table and graphical analysis; the Foster, Greer and Thorsecke (FGT) (1984) weighted poverty index; t-test and the twostage least squares regression techniques.

Download “PDF” RURAL POVERTY AND ITS DETERMINANTS AMONG FARMING.pdf – Downloaded 14 times – 174 KB

AWOYEMI Taiwo Timothy (Ph.D)

Abstract

The study highlights the potential wealth of the Nigerian economy against the background of precarious poverty and inequality situation. Nonetheless, consideration of risk spreading, consumption smoothing, labour allocation smoothing, credit market failures, and coping with shocks can contribute to the adoption and adaptation overtime, of diverse rural livelihoods. The study analyzes the impact of rural non-farm income on poverty and income distribution by analyzing household survey data in Nigeria. The study relies on the decomposition analysis by income sources which consist of calculating the proportion of total inequality and poverty that can be attributed to different income sources, such as wage income, self-employment income and income from the farming activities. The study also adopts the popular FGT measures of poverty status. To determine the factors that would affect poverty, a linear regression model is used for the analysis (an earning equation). Multinomial Logit model is employed to predict the probability that a given household with given characteristics will be able to overcome the barrier to take up either self-employed or wage earning job. The study finds that poverty is acute in Nigeria and access to rural non-farm employments could be poverty-reducing. The results show that distribution of income is still unequal in Nigeria and non-farm economic activities are inequality-decreasing. It is clear that education, age and income impact positively on the probability of an individual to participate in non- farm economic activity. It is proposed that policies to promote rural non-farm employments should focus on rural education and level of farmers’ productivity.

Download “PDF” RURAL NON-FARM INCOMES AND POVERTY REDUCTION IN NIGERIA.pdf – Downloaded 18 times – 307 KB

Benneth Prince OBI

Abstract

The rise in fiscal policy as a tool of macroeconomic management and the pervasive and widespread inequality in terms of income disparity has renewed interest in the use of fiscal policy in the alleviation of poverty and the reduction of income disparity. This study sets out to examine the potency of fiscal policy as a tool for redistributing income. The study uses a static real-side computable general equilibrium model as the framework. Three counterfactual scenarios were examined. These are transfers to the poor household, targeting of government expenditure and import tariff adjustment. The study observed that targeting of government expenditure seems to be the most potent tool for effective redistribution of income. The study observed that tariff adjustment tends to aggravate income disparity amongst households. In this light, the study proposes that in the quest for income redistribution in Nigeria, fiscal policy should be designed in such a manner that government expenditure should be properly focused such that goods required by the poor households are provided through public means.

Download “PDF” FISCAL POLICY AND INCOME DISTRIBUTION SOME POLICY OPTIONS FOR NIGERIA..pdf – Downloaded 17 times – 370 KB

SAMUEL FAMBON

Abstract

Over the past decades, child malnutrition has persisted at high rates in many developing countries including Cameroon. This research attempts to evaluate the levels and characteristics of the malnutrition affecting children and their mothers in Cameroon by using the anthropometric data gathered during the 1998 Demographic Health Survey (DHS) in the country. The research will also use the 1998 DHS to highlight the main factors affecting child malnutrition, by estimating a reduced-form nutritional status function which includes among others children’s characteristics, those of their mothers, and the environment as independent variables. Child malnutrition is expressed in terms of Z-score height-for-age, and the Z-score weight-for-age. Some policy implications will be derived from the results of the study.

Download “PDF” POVERTY AND MALNUTRITION IN CAMEROON.pdf – Downloaded 16 times – 211 KB

CECILIA .O. OKORO, Ph.D & Douglas O. Nwaokugha, Ph.D

Abstract

Globally, the environment has come under severe siege due to the actions and activities of man and correspondingly one multidisciplinary concept which makes case for the environment, people and other living things in the environment is environmental justice but unfortunately knowledge of the concept among some people is limited. This paper focuses on creating awareness on environmental justice in Etche ethnic nationality. The paper establishes that lack of knowledge and awareness on one hand and government ‘s policy directions whose priority for development neglects the masses and the environment are fundamental causes of environmental injustices globally. The paper recommends that so far issues of the environment are prioritized in various academic disciplines, awareness on environmental justice can be routed through curricular and pedagogical innovations, where learners can be sensitized to critique, think and identify sources and implications of environmental problems. Finally the paper demands that individuals and governments should incorporate environmental justice in all their activities.

Download “PDF” CREATING AWARENESS ON ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE IN ETCHE ETHNIC NATIONALITY THROUGH EDUCATION.pdf – Downloaded 15 times – 175 KB

DOUGLAS .O. NWAOKUGHA, Ph.D & CECILIA .O. OKORO, Ph.D

Abstract

Teaching practice is a universal internship programme that serves multiple purposes in teacher education programmes. In recent times this well intentioned exercise has been terribly compromised by teacher education institutions, stakeholders and teaching practice students themselves. Using the philosophical method, this paper broadly discusses teaching practice but pointedly and systematically locates many flash and focal points that potentially lead to or are potential root causes of such compromise in teaching practice in Nigeria that culminate in making teaching practice very demanding, exhaustive and hectic for teaching practice students and their supervisors as well as why teaching practice exercise may not achieve what it was primarily designed to achieve for teacher education institution and the society generally. The paper makes recommendations which when religiously implemented can revive and turn around teaching practice for quality teacher education and professional growth that can trigger development or translate into quality national development.

Download “PDF” TEACHING PRACTICE IN TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMMES THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE.pdf – Downloaded 16 times – 249 KB

Rachael Ozuri

Abstract

This study investigated age and sex as predictors to examination malpractices among secondary school students in Delta Central Senatorial District of Delta State, Nigeria. Two research questions were raised with their corresponding hypotheses formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study is a descriptive survey. The population of the study consists of all the students in the district. Simple random sampling technique was used to select a sample size of 200 students. The instrument for this study is titled Age, Sex and Examination Malpractices among Students. The instrument was validated by expert judgment and the Cronbach alpha measure of internal consistency was used to establish the reliability of the instrument and the r-value of 0.89 was obtained. Data collected was analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-test statistics. The finding showed that there is no significant difference between the age and gender of students and examination malpractices. It was however recommended that Students of all ages should be enlightened on the dangerous effects of examination malpractices irrespective of their age levels, Male and female students should be counselled on the need to shun examination malpractices and should be seriously minded with their academic pursuit, laws should be enacted and strictly followed to punish anyone found to be guilty of examination malpractices. This should serve as a lesson in other for others to avoid the act, Professional counsellors should be employed in all levels of the school to guide and counsel the students on tips related to effective study habit and ways in which they can control their anxiety so as to reduce the act of examination malpractices among students.

Download “PDF” SEX AND AGE AS PREDICTORS TO EXAMINATION MALPRACTICES AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN DELTA CENTRAL SENATORIAL DISTRICT OF DELTA STATE NIGERIA.pdf – Downloaded 14 times – 144 KB

Peter Alawa (Ph.D)

Abstract

Albert Camus is known to be a French Philosophical Novelist, he believes that the central problem of philosophy is the problem of meaning. For him, man is a meaning-seeking being. Camus’ contribution to knowledge is about the absurdity of life, which means that life is meaningless. However, there is another aspect of Camus that we cannot forget and that is his concept of “the stranger”. In his book titled “the stranger” he discussed the nothingness of human existence, and that human beings are strangers and also alienated themselves from the society. However, in this article, we are applying the insights we have gotten from “the stranger” to the problem of insurgency in Nigeria.

Download “PDF” A PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ALBERT CAMUS’ CONCEPT OF THE STRANGER AND THE PROBLEM OF INSURGENCY IN CONTEMPORARY NIGERIA.pdf – Downloaded 14 times – 155 KB

Jacob Olusola ODELOLA Ph.D.  & Nwankaego Eunice OMEBOH (M.Ed)

Abstract

Health hazard of e-waste is emerging as alarming public health problem in Nigeria. Ewastes are generated in an increased manner because electrical and electronic equipment purchased originally as second hand reached its end-of-life rapidly. Disposal of e-waste is done using unsanitary methods due to poor attitude of electronic technicians to e-waste management. This study sought to enhance attitude towards e-waste management through environmental health education among electronic technicians in Oyo State, Nigeria. A pretest-post test control group quasi-experimental research design was adopted for this study. Purposive and systematic sampling techniques were used to select one hundred participants. Three research hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level. Data collected were analysed using Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA). Findings revealed that, there was a significant main effect of treatment on attitude towards e-waste management among electronic technicians in Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria. [F(1,84)=4.900, p<0.05, h2=0.055). Based on the finding, it was recommended that environmental health education should be organised for electronic technicians.

Download “PDF” ENHANCING ATTITUDE TOWARDS E-WASTE MANAGEMENT THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH EDUCATION AMONG ELECTRONIC TECHNICIANS IN IBADAN OYO STATE NIGERIA.pdf – Downloaded 17 times – 168 KB