Botswana 2016

AFRICAN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL LEARNING (ISSN 1447-9540)

Botswana 2016

Volume 4, No. 8, March 2016

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

Dr. (Mrs) C. A. Okoro

Department of Curriculum Studies/Educational Technology,

Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt

Okwuchi Juliana Ifeyinwa

Department of Curriculum Studies/Educational Technology,

Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt

 Ahmadu U. Sanda,

International Labour, Organization

188 Awolowo Road, Ikoyi, Lagos

Aminu S. Mikailu,

Department of Business Administration

Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto

  1. Garba

Department of Economics

Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto

Paul Okiira Okwi Makerere

University Institute of Economics

Makerere University Campus, Kampala, Uganda.

Dr. Youssoufou Congo,

Institut de REcherche, Formation, Actions Pour le Development (IRFAD)

Prof. Kassoum Zerbo,

Agricultural Economics

UFR des Sciences Economiques et Gestion

Universite de Ouagadougou

Burkina Faso

Mr. Kouenkoun Millogo,

Socio-Economist, Junior Research Fellow

Institut de rEcherche, Foramtion, Actions Pour le Development (IFRAD)

Ms. Honorine Hilla

Economist, Doctoral Studnets

UFR des Sciences Economiques et Gestion

Universite de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Dr. Vijay K. Bhasin

Department of Economics, University of Cape Coast

 Munacinga C.H. Simatele

Gutherburg School of Economics and Commercial Law, Department of Economics, Gotherburg.

  1. C. Rweyemamu, B. Mwakalobo and J. Kajuna

Economics and Social Research Foundation (ESRF)

Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.

Samuel O. Oyieke

University of Eastern Africa, Baraton

Charles Augustine Abuka

University of Pretoria, South Africa.

Ochuba  Onyinyechi O.

Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology,

Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt

Ogunleye A.V.

Centre for Rehabilitative Therapy and Kinanthropometric Studies, Uniport.

Adediji, A.O.

Centre for Rehabilitative Therapy and Kinanthropometric Studies, Uniport.

Dr. Nath M. Abraham

Department of Educational Management, Uniport

Ihua-Jonathan Nwovuhoma

Department of Educational Management, Uniport

Comfort Achama Malik

Department of Educational Management, Uniport

Olele C.N.

Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology, Uniport

Agbarakwe Haret Akudo

Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology, Uniport

Akpan, Iniobong Friday

Department of Educational Management, Uniport

Isiguzo Blessing Chioma

Department of Educational Curriculum Guidance and Counselling, Uniport.

Sergeant-Awuse, V.D.

Department of Educational Planning, Faculty of Education, Uniport.

Agabi, O.G.

Department of Educational Planning, Faculty of Education, Uniport.

Lekia Nwikina

Department of Educational Management, Uniport

Worlu, Paul N.

Department of Educational Management, Uniport

Douglas O. Nwaokugha

Department of Educational Foundations, Uniport.

Kehinde Aluko

Institute of Education, University of Benin.

Adieme, Franca Ginikachi

Department of Educational Management, Uniport

Igwe, L.E.B.

Department of Educational Management, Uniport

Okeke E.C.

Department of Educational Foundations, Uniport.

Otigbuo, Patience

Department of Educational Foundations, Uniport.

Oluwuo, S.O.

Department of Educational Management, Uniport.

Chux-Nyeche, Gloria C.

Department of Secretarial Studies

Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt.

Ekpo Geraldine A.

Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt.

Jaja, Sabainah Obibi

Department of Educational Planning, Faculty of Education, Uniport.

Etiido Effiong Inyang

Department of fine art and design, Faculty of Humanities

University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Soiduate Ogoye-Atanga

Department of fine art and design, Faculty of Humanities

University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Dr Okoronkwo Ikechukwu Francis

Department of Fine Arts Design

University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Dr. Mrs. C.A.Okoro & Okwuchi Juliana Ifeyinwa

The Challenges of Insecurity and Social Unrest in Nigeria. The way forward

1
Ahmadu U. Sanda, Aminu S. Mikailu & T. Garba

Corporate Governance Mechanisms And Firm Financial Performance in Nigeria

9
Paul Okiira Okwi Makerere

On Sources of Income and Income Inequality of Rural Uganda: A Decomposition Analysis and Implications For Poverty

37
Dr.Youssoufou Congo, Prof. Kassoum Zerbo, Mr. Kouenkoun Millogo and Ms. Honorine Hilla

Outreach Performance and Sustainability Of African Microfinance: Review Of Evidence From The West African Monetary Union Countries

51
Dr.Vijay K. Bhasin

Determinants Of Technical Efficiency of Tomato Growers In The Brong-Ahafo Region Of Ghana

63
Munacinga C.H. Simatele

The Impact of Structural Adjustment On Food Production In Zambia

87
D.C.Rweyemamu, B. Mwakalobo and J. Kajuna

Assessing Transaction Cost in Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) Credit Schemes: A Case Study of Schemes In Arusha and Mwanza Districts

96
Samuel O. Oyieke

Public Expenditure and Economic Growth in Kenya 1963-2002.

112
Charles Augustine Abuka

The Determinants of the Performance of Tradable Equipment and Non-Tradable Structures Investment in Uganda.

127
Dr. Ochuba Onyinyechi O.

Effects of Instructional Materials on the Teaching and Learning of Language Education in Port Harcourt Local Government Area.

148

 

A.O. Adediji and A.V. Ogunleye

VO2, MAX, BMI As Determinant Of Fitness Parameters Among Male and Female Sandwich Students Of University of Port Harcourt.

156
A.V. Ogunleye and A.O. Adediji

Mental and Social Effect of Exercise Among Pregnant Women In Port Harcourt Metropolis

166
Dr. Nath M. Abraham, Ihua-Jonathan Nwovuhoma and Comfort Achama Malik

Career Plateau and Employee Performance In Secondary School In Rivers State

176
Assoc. Prof. Mrs. C.N. Olele & Agbarakwe, Haret Akudo

Quality Assurance In Clinical Skill Training Laboratory: Implication For Educational Technology

185
Akpan Iniobong Friday

Management of Unsafe School Security and Poor Hazards Communication in Secondary Schools in Akwa Ibom State

196
Isiguzo Blessing Chima & Dr.A.V. Ogunleye

Anxiety Effects on Interventions Performance Time and Accuracy Among Amateur Players: Implication for Counselling Education

206
Sergeant-Awuse, V.D. & Agabi, O.G. Ph.D

School Inputs for the Delivery of Quality Universal Basic Education in Rivers State

216
Lekia Nwikina, Ph.D. & Worlu, Paul N. (Ph.D)

Understanding and Implication Total Quality Management (TQM) in Nigerian Schools

236
Douglas O. Nwaokugha, Ph.D.

Issues and Challenges in Private Sector Participation in Early Childhood Care and Education in Nigeria

249
Kehinde Aluko PhD.

Benchmark Assessment as a Catalyst for Viable School Sports Programme

267
Adieme, Franca Ginikachi & Nath M.Abraham Ph.D.

Prevailing Constraints on the Achievement of Education-Specific Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in the Primary Education System of Rivers State, Nigeria.

276
Prof. Mrs. E.C. Okeke & Otigbuo, Patience

Teacher Expectancy Effects as Correlate of Academic Performance Amongst Students in Rivers State

287
Prof. S.O. Oluwuo & Chux-Nyeche, Gloria C.

Assessment of Adherence to Designed Strategy for Information and Communication Policies Implementation

294
EKpo Geraldine A. (Ph.D)

Comparative Effect of Paid Advertisement and Stadium Facilities as a Funding Strategy for Sport Development in NUGA

306
Jaja, Sabainah Obibi

Department of Educational Planning, Faculty of Education, Uniport.

316
Etiido Effiong Inyang Soiduate Ogoye-Atanga

AKINOLA LASEKAN AND THE CONSTRUCTION OF ZIK’S IDENTITY IN PRE-INDEPENDENCE VISUAL PROPAGANDA IN NIGERIA.

330
Dr Okoronkwo Ikechukwu Francis

STATE OF NETIZEN AND CONTEMPORARY ART MAKING THROUGH ANALOGUE AND DIGITAL PROCESSES

342

 

DR. (MRS) C.A. OKORO & OKWUCHI JULIANA IFEYINWA

Abstract

This study aims at determining the challenges of insecurity and social unrest in Nigeria and the way forward. Nigeria is faced with social and political unrest. These problems emanated from economic frustration such led crimes such as kidnappings, ritual killings, religion killings, suicide bombings and armed banditry, ethnic malatia, etc. Frustration-aggression theory was adopted for this work. From the findings, the results revealed that the causes of insecurity and social unrest in Nigeria are: economic problems, corruption, poor institutional development, leadership style, illiteracy and lack of civilization. In conclusion the challenges of insecurity and social unrest in Nigeria has live the country in limbo causing divers’ violent act. It is recommended that government should provide basic social amenities, infrastructures and employment to the young graduates in the country.

Full Text

Ahmadu U. Sanda, Aminu S. Mikailu & T. Garba

Abstract

Recent global events concerning high-profile corporate failures have put back on the policy agenda and intensified debate on the efficacy of corporate governance mechanisms as a means of increasing firm financial performance. This study is an attempt to address this question using a sample of 93 firms quoted on the Nigerian Stock. Exchange for the period 1996-99. While making a case for a board size of ten and for concentrated as opposed to diffused equity ownership, the results argue for the separation of the posts of CEO and Chairman. Moreover, although the results find no evidence to support the idea that boards with higher proportion of outside directors perform better than other firms, there is evidence that firms run by expatriate CEOs tend to achieve higher levels of performance than those run by indigenous CEOs. In the main, the results are consistent with existing literature but there is the need to err on the side of caution in any attempt to generalize the findings as the sample selection was determined by the availability of data rather than by any probability criterion.

Full Text

PAUL OKIIRA OKWI MAKERERE

Abstract

This proposal aims at investigating the sources of income and their effects on overall inequality and poverty in rural areas of Uganda. The data will come from three major surveys conducted in Uganda, the 1992/93 Integrated Household Survey, the 1999/2000 and 2002/03 National Household Surveys. The data from the National Household surveys is comprehensive and covers household social and economic characteristics such as expenditure, income, assets, education and entrepreneurship. The analysis will aim at decomposing the sources of income into five major groups and determine the contribution of these sources to inequality. Further, the study proposes to use the results of the decomposition analysis to explain how important the different types of income sources are to poverty. The study also aims to do a panel analysis of the changes in sources of income and inequality. It is expected that rural incomes are not only associated with agriculture, but with other sources such as non-farm income and remittances. Finally, the findings of this study will help policymakers in Uganda to identify and take specific measures to improve income distribution and the income earning potentials of the different groups of people or location

Full Text

Dr. Youssoufou Congo, Prof. Kassoum Zerbo, Mr. Kouenkoun Millogo, & Ms. Honorine Hilla

Abstract

Sustainable microfinance systems is viewed as one of the essential tool for improving the living conditions of the poor and very poor, particularly in African countries where the incidence of poverty is very high and where the issues of inadequate financial systems appear the most severe. Therefore, an increased interest by local communities, governments, the private sector and donors emerged in recent years for investing in African microfinance systems. In spite of the enthusiasm for microfinance, urgent questions need to be addressed. How far microfinance systems can reach the target clientele and be sustainable is one of these urgent questions. This research will evaluate African microfinance systems with respect to outreach performance and sustainability. The focus will be on the West African Monetary Union countries.

Full Text

DR VIJAY K. BHASIN

Abstract

The present study identifies the determinants of technical efficiency of agricultural households that grow tomato in the Berekum, Dormaa, and Asutifi districts of the Brong-Ahafo Region of Ghana. The study assesses the contribution of various factors of production in the production of tomatoes and indicates on whose productivity the efforts of the government should be concentrated. The study uses stochastic production function frontier to obtain estimates for the level of technical efficiency of agricultural households that grow tomato. The study shows whether there is any scope for improvement in the level of technical efficiency of these tomato growers at the district level. The study identifies the significant human capital, institutional and socio-economic variables through which the technical efficiency of the agricultural households that grow tomato could be raised and points out the variables on which the efforts of the government should be concentrated. The human capital variables that are being considered are age, education and farming experience of the household head. The institutional variable comprises training experience (extension services). The socio-economic variables that are being considered are occupation of the father of the head of household and soil fertility management practices.

Full Text

MUNACINGA C.H. SIMATELE

Abstract

In the paper, we estimate a system of three output and one Input demand simultaneously. We find that Maize, sorghum and Millet are all responsive to both own and cross price elasticities.Simulation exercises indicate that the removal of exchange rate controls and price subsidies led to increases in grain production.

Full Text

D.C. Rweyemamu, B. Mwakalobo & J. Kajuna

Abstract

The majority of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) cannot afford to adequately finance their production activities. In Tanzania, a number of local and externally funded agencies have been involved in financing MSEs activities through projects. However, most of these credit schemes have been characterized by inefficient financial intermediation such that they often impose high transaction costs on either lenders or borrowers or both. This study attempts to investigate transaction costs in Micro and Small Enterprise (MSEs) credit schemes in Mwanza and Arusha districts. Specifically the study aims at; (i) estimating the lender-borrower loan transaction costs in MSEs lending programmes, (ii) assessing how transaction costs vary across different types of lenders and in different areas, (Hi) identifying factors that affect the transaction costs incurred by borrowers, and (iv) determining the consequences of the transaction costs on credit demand. Primary data will be obtained using a structured questionnaire administered to 120 Micro and Small Enterprise borrowers randomly selected from the two districts together. A checklist will also be used to interview the lending projects in the study areas. Much of the analysis will be based on descriptive statistics to summarize survey results. However, multiple regression analyses will be carried out to identify the determinants of borrowing transaction costs, together with the consequent effects of the costs on loan demand. This study will recommend measures to he taken at both the organizational and national policy level towards the development of a viable and sustainable financial market for MSEs.

Full Text

CHARLES AUGUSTINE ABUKA

Abstract

Aggregate damages in an economy’s capital stock can be disaggregated into tradable capital equipment and non-tradable structures investment and depending on the circumstances involved, these two types of investment can respond in different ways to various shocks. Casual observation suggests that decomposing investment data into equipment and structures may be important in analysing the behaviour of aggregate investment. Models, which do not distinguish between equipment and structures, may not adequately explain aggregate investment response and measures of investment response that fail to make the desegregation risk systematic bias. These bias results because investment in these two areas is not undertaken in fixed proportions. Tills study will present a stylised analysis of the performance of equipment and structures investment in Uganda from 1980 to 2002; estimate models to extract the differential impacts of the terms of trade shocks, aid and erratic infrastructure services. To fix the ideas, factors deemed to be of specific importance for each type of investment are included t o account for its evolution over the period under review. It hopes to derive lessons that could inform future policy.

Full Text

DR. OCHUBA ONYINYECHI O.

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to find out the effect on the teaching and learning of language in Port Harcourt local government area of rivers state. A questionnaire was used to gather data from the respondents of the population of all public secondary schools in port Harcourt. With a sample of twelve (12) schools, five hundred and seventy nine participants responded to the questionnaire. Using mean and standard deviation to determine the score values on 2.50 scales. The result shows that availability of teaching and learning facilities, with basic skills and knowledge, creates a lot of impact to language education. Based on the findings, the recommendations made was that, there should be effective utilization of facilities that will enhance students interest in teaching and learning outcome.

Full Text

A.V. OGUNLEYE (Ph.D) & B. O. ADEDIJI (M.Ed)

Abstract

There is no gain saying that the health and fitness of expectant mothers and the foetus are important to pregnant outcomes. This study considered mental and social effect of exercising among expected mothers in Port Harcourt metropolis. A sample of 500 pregnant women who had recorded at least two life births were drawn, the multi-stage sampling technique, served as the sample and a structured and validated questionnaire served as the data gathering instrument. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study with socio-demographic variables factored in to the hypotheses to determine their influences. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean and inferential statistics of ANOVA and Chi Square at .05 alpha levels. The findings of this study, revealed that exercises during pregnancy can enhance the cognitive function of the mother at older age, give rise to intelligent babies, reverse alcohol induced brain damage, produces general sense of well being, gives pleasure, improve self esteem and fosters creativity. Based on the findings of this study, the researchers recommend that government, stakeholders in sports to organize seminars and symposium for expectant mothers on regular basis. Recommendation of regular exercise to expectant mothers by health care providers.

Full Text

DR. NATH M. ABRAHAM, IHUA-JONATHAN NWOVUHOMA & COMFORT ACHAMA MALIK

Abstract

This study focused on exploring the causes and influence of career plateau on an individual and recommends best strategies to manage an employee who face this ugly phenomenon since career plateau among secondary educators may pose formidable obstacles to the realization of educational goals and objectives as stipulated in the national policy of education.

Full Text

ASSOC. PROF (MRS) C. N. OLELE & AGBARAKWE, HARET AKUDO (MRS.)

Abstract

The study investigated the establishment of a clinical skills laboratory targeted towards the elimination of error in medical diagnosis and promotion of quality service delivery in medical training content and practice. It adopted the descriptive survey research. The population of the study was two hundred and fifty five medical doctors from three Departments in the Faculty of Clinical Science, University of Port Harcourt, out of which 120 were randomly sampled but only eighty five (85) participated in the study. The instrument used was Quality Assurance in Clinical Skills Laboratory Questionnaire (QACSLQ) which was used to collect data from the sample size. The reliability of the instruments was established using the Cronbach alpha method of internal consistency. The reliability coefficient of the test items was .57, while its content validity was 69.82% with construct validity ranging from .30 and .73. One research question and one hypothesis guided the study. The Statistical tool employed in analyzing the research question was the simple percentage while chi-square was used to test the hypothesis. .The findings established that the use of clinical skills laboratory does not have any significant influence on quality assurance in medical education. It is therefore recommended that Medical training college should make optimal use of the clinical skills laboratory for the attainment of performance based outcome curriculum targeted at achieving quality service delivery in actual practice and competency based learning in skills acquisition.

Full Text

AKPAN, INIOBONG FRIDAY

Abstract

This study investigated ways of managing unsafe school security and poor hazards communication in secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. A descriptive survey design was adopted. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique and Taro Yamen’s formular were used to obtain a sample of 145 principals and 400 teachers of the Junior and Senior Secondary Schools for the study. The researcher utilized a 33-item self-designed instrument titled Management of Hazards in Secondary Schools Questionnaire (MHSSQ). Face and content validities were ensured. The reliability index was 0.79 obtained through Cronbach alpha method. The instrument was a modified Liked type scale of SA,A, D, SD. Mean, weighted mean and rank order statistics were used to answer the research questions while the hypotheses were tested with z-test statistics at 0.05% alpha level of significance. The results among others included training school employees on appropriate security procedures and safety induction training to offer general information about inherent hazards in the school system as ways of managing hazards arising from unsafe school security and poor hazard communication respectively. The hypotheses tested revealed that: There was no significant difference between the mean scores of principals and teachers on ways of managing hazards arising from unsafe school security and poor hazards communication. It was recommended that there is need for the establishment of safety (Hazard) Management system in mitigating hazards in the schools for the improvement of the school climate and the entire administration.

Full Text

ISIGUZO BLESSING CHIOMA & DR. A. V. OGUNLEYE

Abstract

Anxiety is a general problem that affects members of the society especially when an individual is battling with performance time and accuracy in a task. It takes many forms and therefore requires so many intervention programmes like the cognitive anxiety intervention and somatic intervention programmes that could be used on participants with dominant anxiety. This paper therefore investigated cognitive anxiety intervention programmes on participants (amateur players) with dominant anxiety response to the competitive state anxiety interventory -2. This was modified to include a directional scale. Interventions were randomly administered in a counterbalanced order 10 min before each performance trial on a test. The dominantly cognitive anxious group (n = 17), the dominantly somatic anxious group (n= 17), and the non-anxious control intervention group (n = 14) completed a baseline performance trial. The second and third trials were completed with random administration of brief cognitive and somatic interventions. The non-anxious control group (n = 13) completed three trials with no intervention. A mix-mode1, Group x Treatment multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant (P<=13) changes in cognitive anxiety intensity and somatic anxiety intensity not in state anxiety direction (P>0.05), or performance time or accuracy (P>0.05). At the end, conclusion was made with a discussion on some of the practical counseling implications. This was followed with some recommendations to enhance facilitating and relaxation of amateur players to suit the circumstances in which time is limited

Full Text

Sergeant-Awuse, V. D & Agabi, O. G Ph.D

Abstract

This study investigated school inputs for the delivery of quality universal basic education in Rivers State. It is a descriptive survey that involved a stratified random sampling of 156 public basic primary schools (110 primary and 46 J.S.S) and 1730 (primary 933 and J.S.S 267) teachers as respondents, from 1200 public basic schools with a total of 13,294 teachers in Rivers State. The instruments used for this study are observation schedule, a school Inputs Inventory Check list (SIIC) and a questionnaire titled “School Inputs Assessment Questionnaire” (SIAQ). Percentages and mean statistics were used to analyze the data collected to address the research questions, while the z-test statistics was also used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. It was discovered that the physical facilities in primary and junior secondary schools are moderately adequate, there are moderately quality teachers and there is moderate level of instructional supervision in primary and junior secondary schools in Rivers State. No significant differences existed between primary and junior secondary schools on the adequacy of physical facilities provision and level of school instructional supervision. It was concluded that the provision of school inputs both from the qualitative and quantitative dimension are not adequate to achieve quality delivery of the universal basic education in Rivers State. It was recommended among others, that government should allocate more funds to education, be responsive to school physical facilities provision and there should be more regular and functional supervision and monitoring of schools to facilitate regular school
facilities maintenance and upgrading.

Full Text

Sergeant-Awuse, V. D & Agabi, O. G Ph.D

Abstract

This study investigated school inputs for the delivery of quality universal basic education in Rivers State. It is a descriptive survey that involved a stratified random sampling of 156 public basic primary schools (110 primary and 46 J.S.S) and 1730 (primary 933 and J.S.S 267) teachers as respondents, from 1200 public basic schools with a total of 13,294 teachers in Rivers State. The instruments used for this study are observation schedule, a school Inputs Inventory Check list (SIIC) and a questionnaire titled “School Inputs Assessment Questionnaire” (SIAQ). Percentages and mean statistics were used to analyze the data collected to address the research questions, while the z-test statistics was also used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. It was discovered that the physical facilities in primary and junior secondary schools are moderately adequate, there are moderately quality teachers and there is moderate level of instructional supervision in primary and junior secondary schools in Rivers State. No significant differences existed between primary and junior secondary schools on the adequacy of physical facilities provision and level of school instructional supervision. It was concluded that the provision of school inputs both from the qualitative and quantitative dimension are not adequate to achieve quality delivery of the universal basic education in Rivers State. It was recommended among others, that government should allocate more funds to education, be responsive to school physical facilities provision and there should be more regular and functional supervision and monitoring of schools to facilitate regular school facilities maintenance and upgrading.

Full Text

DOUGLAS O. NWAOKUGHA, Ph.D.

Abstract

Care and early investments in the educational development of the child is terribly neglected by the Nigerian state. Investments in this level of education are solely undertaken by the private sector. This paper discusses issues and challenges arising out of this development. Prioritizing investments by the private sector for the Nigerian child through care and education is commendable as it can be a sure foundation for achieving social justice, a route for awakening learners’ curiosity for education as well as enhancing learners’ enjoyment of their human and natural rights to education. On the other hand, trends in the participation of the private sector in care and educational investments for the Nigerian child are terribly elitist so much that majority of Nigerians are out of these levels of investments due to high cost, in addition to those in the system not maximally benefitting due to poor infrastructure and poor personnel. To ensure that the fast tracking of human and national development that are the objectives of private sector participation in education are maintained, the paper recommends the following: Nigerian government should provide genuine investors incentives that can enable them overcome challenges they face in the system. Nigerian government should, as a policy, be involved in providing services targeted at care and early development of the Nigerian child; and lastly providers should be more inclusive in their efforts to provide this fundamental requirement for the Nigerian child.

Full Text

Kehinde Aluko Ph.D

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to examine the benchmark assessment as a viable tool for growing school sports. The primary and post-primary institutions are structured to function as social institutions for transmitting values of games and sports. These institutions can only creditably perform this role when the enabling environment is created. Similarly regular assessment conducted should lead to data accumulation which will point to the strength and weakness of the Physical Education and Sports (PES) programme. Unfortunately, what is prevalent in schools are lack of quality and quantitative equipment, facilities, manpower and supplies, including necessary benchmarks. These short comings alongside lack of systematic monitoring and evaluation of PES programme have been isolated as hindrances to viable school sports programme. It is therefore suggested that as a step to truly making benchmarking a catalyst for strong school sports, regular evaluation of PES programme should be undertaken, and benchmarks made the true guides to strengthened school sports.

Full Text

PROF. (MRS) E. C OKEKE & OTIGBUO, PATIENCE

Abstract

This study examined Teacher Expectancy Effects as Correlates of Academic Performance of students in Rivers State Public Secondary Schools. Three (3) research questions and three (3) null hypotheses guided the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted. Using Taro Yamene’s formula, sample of 1,080 students were drawn from a population of 38,081 to elicit information on the teacher expectancy effects on academic performance of students’ senior secondary three (3). The instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire titled “ Teacher Expectancy and Academic Achievement Questionnaire (TEAAQ) in a modified four (4) point Likert type rating scale and researchers made achievement test in mathematics and English Language. Face and content validities of the instrument were ascertain by two experts in measurement and evaluation. Two Way Analyses of Variance ( 2 – way ANOVA) was used to test by hypothesis 1, while hypothesis 2 and 3 were tested, using Z- test statistics. The research questions were answered, using mean and standard deviation. The results obtained indicated the teachers’ words of encouragement, gender, teachers’ gift and reward and teachers’ pieces of advice significantly influence academic performance among students. Among other things the researcher recommended that supervisors of Public Schools in Rivers State should emphasize more on responsibilities of evaluating daily classroom activities particularly the teacher – student interaction to be sure there is balance between educational activities and students’ performance.

Full Text

PROF. S.O. OLUWUO & CHUX-NYECHE, GLORIA .C.

Abstract

The study assessed the extent of adherence to designed strategy for implementation of Information and Communication Technology policies in public secondary schools in Rivers State Nigeria. Three research questions and two hypotheses were posed to guide the study. The descriptive survey research design was adopted. The population of the study comprised all the 15,941 teachers in public secondary schools in Rivers State. Sample for the study consist of two thousand, four hundred public secondary school teachers (2,400) 15% of the target population. The random sampling technique was used to draw the sample size for the study. Instruments used for data collection were interview schedule and questionnaires. Face and content validities were ensured. Kuder Richardson (KR.20) and Cronbach Alpha statistics were used to establish a reliability index of 0.82 & 0.78 respectively. Mean and rank order statistics was used to answer research questions 2&3, z.test of difference was used to test the hypotheses. While simple percentage and bar chart was used to answer research questions 1. Findings revealed that to a low extent, designed strategy were followed and some ICT policies were implemented but poorly implemented. Most public secondary school teachers in Rivers State are not ICT compliant. They were not able to acquire ICT skills. It was recommended amongst others that government should ensure that teachers are regularly trained and retrained on ICTs in order to ensure that the Nigerian society is not digitally divided. Teachers should embark on self-development to enable them acquire better computing and ICT skills to be able to use the computer to generate and process information and effectively use it for instructional delivery and so become ICT compliance.

Full Text

EKPO GERALDINE A. (Ph.D)

Abstract

The study investigated selected funding strategies on paid advertisement and stadium facilities as correlate of sports development in NUGA. The descriptive survey method was adopted for the conduct of the study using the multi-stage sampling technique which was made up of two thousand and ninety four respondents which comprised of sports council chairmen, directors of sports, coaches, members of NUGA, executive committee and university athletes who represented their various universities at the 2001 and 2002 NUGA held in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria and University of Ibadan, Ibadan respectively. The table random number was used to select the number of the respondents. Data was collected using the researcher self-designed likert-type questionnaire, where the multi-regression analysis was employed to test the two hypotheses formulated at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that the selected funding strategies had significant funding correlation with sports development in NUGA where the multi-regression analysis yielded a correlation coefficients of R² =0.51, (p<0.05), whereas the advertisement had the highest relative contribution of (B=6.66, P<0.05) which was followed by stadium facilities and had a negative contribution of (B= 4.37, P<0.05). In conclusion, the study has shown that aggressive advertisement of sports programmes by stakeholders and an effective on stadium facility will contribute significantly to the development of sports in NUGA. Based on these findings, it is recommended that Government should provide the enabling environment that will motivate and encourage corporate bodies, individuals and sports stakeholders to give maximum support for sports development in NUGA

Full Text

Etiido Effiong Inyang & Soiduate Ogoye-Atanga

Abstract

The paper draws on the evaluations of graphic representation of in Pre-independence press propaganda in Nigeria. Situated within this premise, it considers the construction of Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe’s political identity as represented by the artist/cartoonist Akinola Lasekan. This focus is an evaluation on identity as an agency in the course of national histories. By this assessment, the politics and economies of representation as critical elements in the overall understanding of the discourse on the visual propaganda are broached. It adapts the polyvalent narratives of Bourdieu’s ‘capitals’ to suggest that mass appeal in image construction of Zik’s political status was significantly accentuated through the dissemination of his illustrated imagery.

Full Text

Dr Okoronkwo Ikechukwu Francis

Abstract

This paper examines the conditions of an Information and Communication Technology constituted citizen referred in this study as a netizen and how art making had been influenced through these new technologies. The study analyses the work of four artists who had been influenced through these processes as a way of gaining deeper insights into the way art making had been influenced either by analogue or digital processes. The study justifies the new approaches of creating art through contemporary technologies of ICT as instinctual traits in human who reacts through his everyday materials. The paper concludes that though humans react through any existing technology of their time, the importance of doing things through hand as had been done from beginning still maintains its attractions to artists because of haptic connections that exist by touching materials. The paper recommends that artists should incorporate the advantages that are inherent in both approaches in creation of their art.

Full Text